Wheat species, classes & varieties
From the primitive type of wheat (Triticum Vulgaris), there have been different species, classes and varieties. We will mention the following:
According to its utility
Basically in Europe, soft wheat is used to produce flour and bread, whereas durum wheat is used to produce semolina and pasta.
Soft wheat: it is a group which includes some species and varieties destined essentially to bread production. The most abundant species within this group is the common wheat (Triticum aestivum) belonging to the same group but others as well know as spelt wheat (Triticum spelta). Soft wheats are grown mainly in warm and temperate regions. Their grains, when breaking, show a difference in texture between the edge, harder, and the center, more starchy. Their content in starch, fat, iron, phosphorus and vitamin B is higher than in durum wheat. There are many common soft wheat varieties classified in countries of harvest.
Durum wheat: the specie Triticum durum is grown in drier areas. The appearance of the interior of the grain when it is broken is crystalline and uniform. It features more proportion of protein, water and calcium than soft wheat. In Europe, they are mainly intended for the production of semolina and then pasta. There are many durum wheat varieties classified in countries of harvest.
According to the planting season
Winter wheat: they are those that are planted in Autumn and harvested at the beginning of Summer. They need mid climates.
Spring wheat: they are planted in Spring and harvested in late Summer. They are planted in cooler places.
By the color of the seed
Red wheats: when they present a slightly red coloration, due to his tannin content. For example, read wheats like the Soft Red Winter (SRW) or Hard Red Spring (HRS) are imported by some EU countries from North America.
White wheats: they are whitish because the riddish pigments have been removed from them. White wheats are very commonly used by Asian countries to produce Asian noodles and Asian steamed breads.